what is reliability in research

Leave a comment The results of the tests and the inferences drawn have to be applied to natural settings, they should be reliable. For more information about how the vaccine/autism story unfolded, as well as the repercussions of this story, take a look at Paul Offit’s book, Autism’s False Prophets: Bad Science, Risky Medicine, and the Search for a Cure.  +  As an informal example, imagine that you have been dieting for a month. Criteria can also include other measures of the same construct. Define validity, including the different types and how they are assessed. It is also the case that many established measures in psychology work quite well despite lacking face validity. For example, it would be a major advancement in the medical field if a published study indicated that taking a new drug helped individuals achieve a healthy weight without changing their diet. Theories are developed from the research inferences when it proves to be highly reliable. Interrater reliability is often assessed using Cronbach’s α when the judgments are quantitative or an analogous statistic called Cohen’s κ (the Greek letter kappa) when they are categorical. Discussions of validity usually divide it into several distinct “types.” But a good way to interpret these types is that they are other kinds of evidence—in addition to reliability—that should be taken into account when judging the validity of a measure. In a series of studies, they showed that people’s scores were positively correlated with their scores on a standardized academic achievement test, and that their scores were negatively correlated with their scores on a measure of dogmatism (which represents a tendency toward obedience). Instead, they conduct research to show that they work. Reliability refers to the ability to consistently produce a given result. Poorly conceived or executed studies can be weeded out, and even well-designed research can be improved by the revisions suggested. http://cnx.org/contents/Sr8Ev5Og@5.48:mfArybye@7/Analyzing-Findings. There has to be more to it, however, because a measure can be extremely reliable but have no validity whatsoever. Most people would expect a self-esteem questionnaire to include items about whether they see themselves as a person of worth and whether they think they have good qualities. According to Kerlinger, ‘the commonest definition of the validity is epitomized by the question: Are we measuring what we think we are measuring’. Once rescinded, the scientific community is informed that there are serious problems with the original publication. This is as true for behavioural and physiological measures as for self-report measures. In social sciences, using parallel forms of the same test is difficult and subjectivity is highly involved. One approach is to look at a split-half correlation. If we find that watching a violent television program results in more violent behavior than watching a nonviolent program, we can safely say that watching violent television programs causes an increase in the display of violent behavior. In this case, it is not the participants’ literal answers to these questions that are of interest, but rather whether the pattern of the participants’ responses to a series of questions matches those of individuals who tend to suppress their aggression. What data could you collect to assess its reliability and criterion validity? However, in social sciences it is difficult to achieve reliability in the data collection, because, human behaviors are difficult to repeat even in similar situations. For one, some researchers assert that the SAT is a biased test that places minority students at a disadvantage and unfairly reduces the likelihood of being admitted into a college (Santelices & Wilson, 2010). McLeod, S. A. In general, all the items on such measures are supposed to reflect the same underlying construct, so people’s scores on those items should be correlated with each other. Inter-rater reliability check is used to measure the test by more than one rater or judge. The American Psychological Association (APA) publishes a manual detailing how to write a paper for submission to scientific journals. Reliability in qualitative studies is mostly a matter of “being thorough, careful and honest in carrying out the research” (Robson, 2002: 176). The first step to achieving validity in the research is to develop research objectives that really target the research questions that you have formulated. Sources of Information for Research Paper, How to Record Notes for the Research Paper, http://www.simplypsychology.org/validity.html, Causes and Solutions of Juvenile Delinquency, What are the qualities of a good research topic, Who should Take Dietary (Foods) Supplements, How to Preserve Food using Natural Food Preservatives. Reliability and validity are the two most important characteristics of the research. A peer-reviewed journal article is read by several other scientists (generally anonymously) with expertise in the subject matter. In the vaccine-autism case, the retraction was made because of a significant conflict of interest in which the leading researcher had a financial interest in establishing a link between childhood vaccines and autism (Offit, 2008). External validity refers to the extent to which the outcomes of the research can be generalized to the population. If a qualitative research project is reliable, it will help you understand a situation clearly that would otherwise be confusing. When the criterion is measured at the same time as the construct, criterion validity is referred to as concurrent validity; however, when the criterion is measured at some point in the future (after the construct has been measured), it is referred to as predictive validity (because scores on the measure have “predicted” a future outcome). If there is some judgment being made by the researchers, then we need to assess the reliability of scores across researchers. Cronbach’s α would be the mean of the 252 split-half correlations. The relevant evidence includes the measure’s reliability, whether it covers the construct of interest, and whether the scores it produces are correlated with other variables they are expected to be correlated with and not correlated with variables that are conceptually distinct. Face validity as the name suggests shows the face-off value of the research or the measures used in the research. Therefore, any difference between the groups is attributable to the independent variable, and now we can finally make a causal statement. To address these concerns, he has called for significant changes to the SAT exam (Lewin, 2014). Conducting experiments in natural settings can help improve external validity of the research. Although this measure would have extremely good test-retest reliability, it would have absolutely no validity. Both forms of the test measure the same variables under study, but the format of the measure is different. Furthermore, several of the original studies making this claim have since been retracted. Quantitative research strives to present valid and reliable research finding. The very nature of mood, for example, is that it changes. Psychological researchers do not simply assume that their measures work. (credit: modification of work by UNICEF Sverige). The validity of the criteria can be judged by comparing it with another future assessment, if the future assessment proves to be successful it shows that the criteria or the test devised to test a behavior was valid and should be used again. This method of testing the reliability of the test is time-consuming, since the researcher has to wait for some time to re-administer the test. Psychologists consider three types of consistency: over time (test-retest reliability), across items (internal consistency), and across different researchers (inter-rater reliability). Assessing convergent validity requires collecting data using the measure. Kumar R. (2000.a) in Research Methodology stated that he idea behind internal consistency reliability is that items measuring the same phenomenon should produce similar results.

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