Shannon himself defined an important concept now called the unicity distance. Web browsing, in particular, is impractical on AR devices as current web design principles do not account for three-dimensional display and navigation of virtual content. So, the binary sequence should have a length log, Therefore, the binary sequence should have length log, approximation eq. As yet, text hiding and steganalysis have drawn relatively less attention compared to data hiding in other media such as image, video, and audio. Then, we discuss a very important quantity in classical information theory, the capacity of a discrete noisy channel. It covers two main topics: entropy and channel capacity. In general, information hiding or data hiding can be categorized into two classifications: watermarking and steganography. Dover (2nd Edition). In the subsequent of the paper, we will omit the base in the logarithm function. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first technique that provides end-to-end hidden transmission of SM in the cover of text message using symmetric keys via social media. A class of improved random number generators is termed cryptographically secure pseudorandom number generators, but even they require random seeds external to the software to work as intended. Communications over a channel—such as an ethernet cable—is the primary motivation of information theory. x��[ms��NU���Gl�KfS����Dr|�r�'�S�l�H���%Q9���{���"]V]�dn� �F�>�����F����������g��6�g?�)~�)._m�c�6=m�_���fGs��h�7�Ά�7�ؿ�Ry��)������˷���7�6�{~��*n������o���N�g1c�^{ZT��J��o�Kc��ã��?�I ��;=Z�L�l����̰�����d��|��d&�4K�F���v��6�䆛��cT�C�N>R�Mz�Ŭi4AW���ʘ�.���.1�Y������Ә�VfLSC�~�c�n�{[�e[�L`%hK��S�4/�b�O�yP� o��������x�� ��N�1� ʼ�H{�̫����MI�!�W$��\��\JR%�ʒ�>U�i�I{�iݬ5݉e?�'v��-�r�F�;�d9ƌ�bg;��^y��96�r�+7Nf��?�F���hyV������?���t(�t��A�S~���F�Xa �I�j�y�X�$�k��X�+�Sx�R81�l2nT��e��Y�u���w��-=��h�7�䩆| ��M�E_"y���>zFV�R� �������.�����W���H*��N���? 0000001485 00000 n Modern Text Hiding, Text Steganalysis, and Applications: A Comparative Analysis, Research Contributions To Intelligent Text Hiding and Modern Coding Theory via Unicode Encoding, M2A: A Framework for Visualizing Information from Mobile Web to Mobile Augmented Reality, A Mathematical Theory of Communication: The Bell System Technical Journal. This division of coding theory into compression and transmission is justified by the information transmission theorems, or source–channel separation theorems that justify the use of bits as the universal currency for information in many contexts. 2 and Weaver 1949). central problems in the theory of fundamental limits of data compression other measures of information. Information theory leads us to believe it is much more difficult to keep secrets than it might first appear. Note joint distribution and conditional distribution are still probability distributions. The choice of logarithmic base in the following formulae determines the unit of information entropy that is used. Accessible information, Holevo quantity and quantum channel capacities are discussed; the classical capacity of quantum channels is presented, as well as a brief introduction to the other kinds of quantum channel capacities. His later work on chess-playing machines and an electronic mouse that could run a maze helped create the field of artificial intelligence, the effort to make machines that think. The measure of sufficient randomness in extractors is min-entropy, a value related to Shannon entropy through Rényi entropy; Rényi entropy is also used in evaluating randomness in cryptographic systems. This paper presents an overview of state of the art of the text hiding area, and provides a comparative analysis of recent techniques, especially those focused on marking structural characteristics of digital text message/file to hide secret bits. p Use of this website signifies your agreement to the IEEE Terms and Conditions. Shannon's main result, the noisy-channel coding theorem showed that, in the limit of many channel uses, the rate of information that is asymptotically achievable is equal to the channel capacity, a quantity dependent merely on the statistics of the channel over which the messages are sent.[2]. If is the set of all messages {x1, ..., xn} that X could be, and p(x) is the probability of some 0000001782 00000 n Information theory is the mathematical treatment of the concepts, parameters and rules governing the transmission of messages through communication systems. Combinatorics on trees, permutations, etc. This is justified because The answer is given in the following proposition: The deﬁnition of information and entropy can be extended to contin, where we used the deﬁnition of (Riemann) integral and the fact, formula here is called the absolute entrop, the probability distribution, there is alwa, drop this term and deﬁne the (relative) entrop. Let p(y|x) be the conditional probability distribution function of Y given X. <> Some open discussion on if the Shannon capacity limit can be broken is presented as well. Explained: The Shannon limit A 1948 paper by Claude Shannon SM ’37, PhD ’40 created the field of information theory — and set its research agenda for the next 50 … Concepts, methods and results from coding theory and information theory are widely used in cryptography and cryptanalysis. Abstract: Modern text hiding is an intelligent programming technique which embeds a secret message/watermark into a cover text message/file in a hidden way to protect confidential information. Shannon approached research with a sense of curiosity, humor, and fun. In such cases, the positive conditional mutual information between the plaintext and ciphertext (conditioned on the key) can ensure proper transmission, while the unconditional mutual information between the plaintext and ciphertext remains zero, resulting in absolutely secure communications. The equivalent number of binary digits per second for certain information sources is calculated. Information theoretic concepts apply to cryptography and cryptanalysis. X If the channel is errorless, what is the capacity of the channel? The experiments confirm that the AITSteg can prevent different attacks, including man-in-the-middle attack, message disclosure, and manipulation by readers. Any process that generates successive messages can be considered a source of information. (Please cite this paper as: R. X. F. Chen, A brief introduction to Shannon's information theory, arXiv:1612.09316 [cs.IT].). Thus, we outline some guidelines and directions to enhance the efficiency of structural-based techniques in digital texts for future works. (Here, I(x) is the self-information, which is the entropy contribution of an individual message, and X is the expected value.) The mutual information of X relative to Y is given by: where SI (Specific mutual Information) is the pointwise mutual information. ourself instead of looking into the one actually received at the destination. We will consider p(y|x) to be an inherent fixed property of our communications channel (representing the nature of the noise of our channel). 0000002012 00000 n 5 0 obj :) <> ! %PDF-1.4 These groundbreaking innovations provided the tools that ushered in the information age. In other words, an eavesdropper would not be able to improve his or her guess of the plaintext by gaining knowledge of the ciphertext but not of the key. on what information is, how to measure information, and so on. Although related, the distinctions among these measures mean that a random variable with high Shannon entropy is not necessarily satisfactory for use in an extractor and so for cryptography uses. It is more like a long note so that it is by no means a complete survey or completely mathematically rigorous. All these concepts will be developed in a totally combinatorial favor. (6) is the celebrated quantit. %�쏢 information is the paper where Claude Shannon (1948) introduces a precise formalism designed to solve certain specific technological problems in communication engineering (see also Shannon . tion 2.4 that the uniform distribution achieves the c, with some unpredictable error, the received letter at the destination may be. 1’s will be changed to 0’s and vice versa. We experiment with the ANiTW by implementing it on 16 social media applications (SMAs) and some real CT examples concerning evaluation criteria. Its impact has been crucial to the success of the Voyager missions to deep space, the invention of the compact disc, the feasibility of mobile phones, the development of the Internet, the stud… Assume the channel will carry the exact letters generated by the source to the desti-, the destination will receive exactly the same amount of information generated or pro, be obtained at the destination in a ﬁxed time duration, e.g., p, destination can in principle determine, without error, the corresponding sequences feed. While at M.I.T., he worked with Dr. Vannevar Bush on one of the early calculating machines, the "differential analyzer," which used a precisely honed system of shafts, gears, wheels and disks to solve equations in calculus. Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001) was an American mathematician, electrical engineer, and cryptographer known as "the father of information theory".

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