Basic Aeronautical Knowledge This section of Learning Zone is dedicated to free resources to help learners prepare for Basic Aeronautical Knowledge exams. This email address is being protected from spambots. page has the same format. Positive Static Stability - The initial tendency of the airplane to return to the original state of equilibrium after being disturbed. The trick is to find some kind of systematic approach and concentrate on the important material. tolerance (i.e., 1,800 p.s.i.) If the time unit for one cycle or oscillation is less than one or two seconds, it is called a "short-period" oscillation and is normally very difficult, if not impossible, for the pilot to control. She's a very _______________ woman; she never seems to relax! The airplane designer can offset this by establishing a "high thrustline" wherein the line of thrust passes above the center of gravity. The airplane may be so stable laterally that it resists any intentional rolling motion. You can download a copy of any slide on any page by using a right click and "Save As..". + Oblique Shock Interactive Simulator The Beginner's Guide to Model Rockets will show you the basic math and at NASA Glenn. Aerodynamics If a boot fails to heat one blade, an unequal blade loading can result, and may cause severe propeller vibration. It is the quality of the airplane's response to the pilot's control application when maneuvering the airplane, regardless of its stability characteristics. Yawing or directional stability is the more easily achieved stability in airplane design. The swept wing provides a stable contribution depending on the amount of sweepback, but the contribution is relatively small when compared with other components. He _______________ed his dream of becoming an airline pilot. Air is released from the fuselage by a device called an outflow valve. Please send your comments to Tom Benson using The number and location of these servos depends on the complexity of the system. Too much stability is detrimental to maneuverability, and similarly, not enough stability is detrimental to controllability. Conversely, excessive dihedral has an adverse effect on lateral maneuvering qualities. + ShockModeler Interactive Simulator Learning the basics of how to fly an airplane is the first step to becoming a professional pilot. Most airplanes are designed so that the wing's center of lift (CL) is to the rear of the center of gravity. The center of pressure tends to move forward with an increase in angle of attack and to move aft with a decrease in angle of attack. Index The electrical current can cause compass deviation errors; in some cases, as much as 40°. + SoccerNASA Interactive Simulator. After several of these diminishing oscillations, in which the nose alternately rises and lowers, the airplane will finally settle down to a speed at which the downward force on the tail exactly counteracts the tendency of the airplane to dive. The basis of rolling stability is, of course, the lateral balance of forces produced by the airplane's wings. + Student (6-10) Activities. This helps to stabilize the lateral or rolling effect when one wing gets lower than the wing on the opposite side of the airplane. The scientist _______________ the results. interactive computer programs. + Equal Employment Opportunity Data Posted Pursuant to the No Fear Act If they are allowed to cycle too often, ice can form over the contour of the boot and render the boots ineffective. The ammeter shows if the alternator/generator is producing an adequate supply of electrical power. As a result of this decreased flow of air over the wing, the downwash is reduced, causing a lesser downward force on the horizontal stabilizer. hyperlinks and references to other pages at the site where you can find This tendency would be indicated to the pilot by the fact that the airplane cannot be flown hands off indefinitely. A neutral or divergent, short-period oscillation is dangerous because structural failure usually results if the oscillation is not damped immediately. Because of the associated hazards, specific training is required in tailwheel airplanes. Ice control systems installed on aircraft consist of anti-ice and de-ice equipment. NOTICE --- The mask-mounted regulator eliminates the problem of a long hose that must be purged of air before 100 percent oxygen begins flowing into the mask. For example, a single-axis autopilot controls the aircraft about the longitudinal axis and a servo actuates the ailerons. do airplanes work? To a certain degree, a convergent phugoid is desirable but is not required. Ordinarily, the nose will pass the original position (that of level flight) and a series of slow pitching oscillations will follow. Oils and greases may catch fire if exposed to oxygen, and cannot be used for sealing the valves and fittings of oxygen equipment. The primary danger of decompression is hypoxia. var addy1549ccd40de34cb1cc7b746c3e60c009 = 'info' + '@'; ever wonder how airplanes fly? Air will rush from the mouth and nose due to the escape of air from the lungs, and may be noticed by some individuals. Steerable nosewheels are linked to the rudders by cables or rods, while castering nosewheels are free to swivel. An alternate type of leading edge protection that is not as common as thermal anti-ice and de-icing boots is known as a weeping wing. The faster the airplane is flying, the greater this downwash and the greater the downward force on the horizontal stabilizer (except "T" tails). Flight tests during the airworthiness certification of airplanes are conducted for this condition by inducing the oscillation in the controls for pitch, roll, or yaw at the most critical speed (i.e., at VNE, the never-exceed speed). They need to be carefully inspected prior to a flight. This restoring tendency is relatively slow in developing and ceases when the airplane stops skidding. Operation of aircraft anti-icing and de-icing systems should be checked prior to encountering icing conditions. After several of these diminishing oscillations, in which the nose alternately rises and lowers, the airplane will finally settle down to a speed at which the downward force on the tail exactly counteracts the tendency of the airplane to dive. + TunnelSim-Open Interactive Simulator Alternators have several advantages over generators. There are bumps and depressions created by gusty updrafts and downdrafts, and by gusts from ahead, behind, or the side of the airplane. It is seen that the unit of time is very significant. Well, this is your challenge. If the airplane is to provide maximum utility, it must be safely controllable to the full extent of these limits without exceeding the pilot's strength or requiring exceptional flying ability. Superchargers may be used on older model turbine powered airplanes to pump air into the sealed fuselage. them fly over, or read about them, or see them on television. + Baseball Activities. plus special offers. To clean the mask, wash it with a mild soap and water solution and rinse it with clear water. + Freedom of Information Act This site has all the basic knowledge you need to know about Aviation. For example, a 12-volt battery would be fed by a generator/alternator system of approximately 14 volts.The difference in voltage keeps the battery charged. built for the Fundamental Aero program (FAP) A cabin rate-of-climb instrument and a cabin altimeter are illustrated in Figure 12.